NEF: A Pleiotropic Modulator of Primate Lentivirus Infectivity and Pathogenesis

Balog, Katalin and Minarovits, J. (2006) NEF: A Pleiotropic Modulator of Primate Lentivirus Infectivity and Pathogenesis. Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica, 53 (1). pp. 51-75. ISSN 1217-8950

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The lentiviral protein Nef recruits cellular signalling proteins to lipid rafts at the cell membrane and acts thereby as a master regulator affecting the transcription of a series of cellular genes. By activating resting T cells, Nef creates an optimal environment for lentivirus replication. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected macrophages and microglial cells Nef activates the production of T-cell attracting chemokines and contributes to the development HIV infection associated brain damage. Nef also functions as an adaptor or connector protein downregulating CD4 and CCR5, the key receptor and one of the coreceptors for HIV. It also downregulates cell surface expression of a subset of class I MHC molecules which contributes to viral immune evasion. Extracellular, soluble Nef may facilitate the spread of T-cell-tropic HIV variants and mediate a switch in dominant replicating HIV strains (from macrophage- tropic to T-cell-tropic viruses) in AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) patients. Virion-bound Nef enhances infectivity. Nef is a potential target of antiretroviral therapy and nef-deleted (attenuated) retroviruses have been considered as candidate vaccines against HIV. We suggest that nef-deleted or highly mutated defective HIV (dHIV) genomes interfere with replication of “wild type” HIV in certain long-term non-progressor individuals. This implies that introduction of artificially constructed dHIV genomes (by infusion of leukocytes carrying dHIV proviruses) into HIV infected individuals could slow disease progression and could be considered as a therapeutic possibility.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science / természettudomány > QR Microbiology / mikrobiológia
Depositing User: xFruzsina xPataki
Date Deposited: 12 Sep 2017 15:39
Last Modified: 12 Sep 2017 15:39

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