Adatok Balatonőszöd – Temetői-dűlő, késő rézkori rituális álarc keltezéséhez

Sipos, György and Horváth, Tünde and May, Zoltán and Tóth, Mária (2012) Adatok Balatonőszöd – Temetői-dűlő, késő rézkori rituális álarc keltezéséhez. In: Környezet – Ember – Kultúra: Az alkalmazott természettudományok és a régészet párbeszéde. Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum Nemzeti Örökségvédelmi Központ, Budapest, pp. 373-384. ISBN 978-963-88584-8-1


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In 2002, we excavated a broken Late Copper Age clay male-mask from the Baden culture at Balatonőszöd – Temetői-dűlő site, in a double pit (feature No. 1072 – 1096). The mask layed above the pits, in cultural layer No. 925. The stratigraphy of the features and the fi nds suggested that they are not coeval, but it was a question that this situation caused by contemporary or secondary disturbation, and what is theirs relative and absolute age within the Baden culture. To clear it, we classifi ed the fi nds and made radiocarbon measurements from an animal bone, and termoluminescence measurements from the ceramic fi nds. The TL / OSL dates harmonise with the earlier radiocarbon dates and confi rm the stratigraphy of the two pits: Pit 1072, an amorphous feature, was dug fi rst (OSL date: 5200 ± 600 and 5000 ± 700 years ago, i.e. 3200 – 3000 BC) and Pit 1096 was subsequently dug into it a few centuries after the previous one had become infi lled. Pit 1096 (4400 ± 500 years ago, i.e. 2400 BC) appears to have been carelessly dug. The broken mask portraying a male face (4700 ± 500 years ago, i.e. 2700 BC) was most likely deposited on top of the pit at this time by the latest or perhaps earlier. The dates for the fi nds and the mask fragment from Pit 1096 were younger than the ones for the material from Pit 1072. In terms of absolute dates, the archaeological features and the fi nds can be assigned to the classical Phase III or Phase IV of the Baden culture, falling between 5200 / 5000 – 4700 / 4400 years ago, i.e. 3200 – 2400 BC. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the fabric of the clay artefacts recovered from Pits 1072-1096, including the broken clay mask, was highly similar, implying that the Baden potters used clay from the same source, probably the section of the settlement lying on the lakeshore. The phase composition and petrography of the clay fi nds from Pits 1072-1096 resemble those of the pottery fragments from other locations of the settlement. The X-ray diffraction analysis yielded near-identical ranges for fi ring temperature of pottery artefacts, providing evidence that the culture’s potters employed simple, rudimentary fi ring techniques for producing the immense amounts of sophisticated Baden wares. The analyses have furnished conclusive proof that the fi nds from Pits 1072-1096, also including the unusual artefacts, were part of the archaeological heritage of the extensive, roughly 100 000 m2 large Boleráz – Baden settlement section uncovered at the site.

Item Type: Book Section
Subjects: C Auxiliary Sciences of History / történeti segédtudományok > CC Archaeology / régészet
Q Science / természettudomány > QC Physics / fizika
Q Science / természettudomány > QE Geology / földtudományok > QE06 Petrology. Petrography / kőzettan, petrográfia
Depositing User: Ágnes Kolláth
Date Deposited: 06 Dec 2013 14:56
Last Modified: 06 Dec 2013 14:56

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