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Methylene Blue Bridges the Inhibition and Produces Unusual Respiratory Changes in Complex III-Inhibited Mitochondria. Studies on Rats, Mice and Guinea Pigs

Sváb, Gergely and Kokas, Márton and Sipos, Ildikó and Ambrus, Attila and Tretter, László (2021) Methylene Blue Bridges the Inhibition and Produces Unusual Respiratory Changes in Complex III-Inhibited Mitochondria. Studies on Rats, Mice and Guinea Pigs. ANTIOXIDANTS. ISSN 2076-3921 (In Press)

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Abstract

Methylene blue (MB) is used in human therapy in various pathological conditions. Its effects in neurodegenerative disease models are promising. MB acts on multiple cellular targets and mechanisms, but many of its potential beneficial effects are ascribed to be mitochondrial. Ac-cording to the “alternative electron transport” hypothesis, MB is capable of donating electrons to cytochrome c bypassing complex I and III. As a consequence of this, the deleterious effects of the inhibitors of complex I and III can be ameliorated by MB. Recently, the beneficial effects of MB ex-erted on complex III-inhibited mitochondria were debated. In the present contribution, several pieces of evidence are provided towards that MB is able to reduce cytochrome c and improve bio-energetic parameters, like respiration and membrane potential, in mitochondria treated with com-plex III inhibitors, either antimycin or myxothiazol. These conclusions were drawn from meas-urements for mitochondrial oxygen consumption, membrane potential, NAD(P)H steady state, MB uptake and MB-cytochrome c oxidoreduction. In the presence of MB and complex III inhibitors, unusual respiratory reactions, like decreased oxygen consumption as a response to ADP addition as well as stimulation of respiration upon administration of inhibitors of ATP synthase or ANT, were observed. Qualitatively identical results were obtained in three rodent species. The actual metabolic status of mitochondria is well reflected in the distribution of MB amongst various com-partments of this organelle.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: R Medicine / orvostudomány > RC Internal medicine / belgyógyászat > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry / idegkórtan, neurológia, pszichiátria
SWORD Depositor: MTMT SWORD
Depositing User: Erika Bilicsi
Date Deposited: 16 Feb 2021 08:19
Last Modified: 30 Jun 2021 23:24
URI: http://real.mtak.hu/id/eprint/120103

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