Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: Diagnostic features, classification and treatment options

Uitto, Jouni and Jiang, Qiujie and Váradi, András and Bercovitch, Lionel G. and Terry, Sharon F. (2014) Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: Diagnostic features, classification and treatment options. EXPERT OPINION ON ORPHAN DRUGS, 2 (6). pp. 567-577. ISSN 2167-8707

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Introduction: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a multisystem orphan disease, clinically affects the skin, the eyes and the cardiovascular system with considerable morbidity and mortality. The clinical manifestations reflect the underlying pathology consisting of ectopic mineralization of peripheral connective tissues. Areas covered: The diagnostic criteria of PXE include characteristic clinical findings, together with histopathology of accumulation of pleiomorphic elastic structures in the dermis with progressive mineralization, and the presence of mutations in the ABCC6 gene. PXE-like cutaneous changes can also be encountered in other ectopic mineralization disorders, including generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) caused by mutations in the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) gene. In some cases, overlapping clinical features of PXE/GACI, associated with mutations either in ABCC6 or ENPP1, have been noted. PXE demonstrates considerable inter- and intrafamilial heterogeneity, and consequently, accurate diagnosis is required for appropriate classification with prognostic implications. There is no effective and specific treatment for the systemic manifestations of PXE, but effective therapies to counteract the ocular complications are in current clinical use. Expert opinion: A number of observations in the animal model, the Abcc6-/- , mouse, have indicated that the mineral composition of diet, particularly the magnesium content, can influence the severity of the mineralization phenotype. These observations suggest that appropriate dietary interventions, coupled with lifestyle modifications, including smoking cessation, might alleviate the symptoms and improve the quality of life of individuals affected with this, currently intractable, orphan disease. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: N1 Funding Details: NIH, National Institutes of Health
Uncontrolled Keywords: treatment indication; Smoking Cessation; review; Quality of Life; Prognosis; priority journal; PHENOTYPE; nonhuman; MINERALIZATION; lifestyle modification; human; Histopathology; Genetic Heterogeneity; gene mutation; GENE; ENPP1 gene; disease severity; disease classification; Differential diagnosis; diet therapy; diagnostic accuracy; dermis; clinical feature; artery calcification; ABCC6 gene; vasculotropin inhibitor; pyrophosphoric acid derivative; MAGNESIUM; bisphosphonic acid derivative; pseudoxanthoma elasticum; Heritable orphan diseases; Generalized arterial calcification of infancy; Ectopic mineralization disorders
Subjects: R Medicine / orvostudomány > RL Dermatology / bőrgyógyászat
Depositing User: MTMT SWORD
Date Deposited: 02 Feb 2015 14:26
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2015 14:26

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