Circulation of four Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in Europe.

Jahfari, Setareh and Coipan, E. Claudia and Fonville, Manoj and van Leeuwen, Arieke Docters and Hengeveld, Paul and Heylen, Dieter and Heyman, Paul and van Maanen, Cees and Butler, Catherine M. and Földvári, Gábor and Szekeres, Sándor and van Duijvendijk, Gilian and Tack, Wesley and Rijks, Jolianne M. and van der Giessen, Joke and Takken, Willem and van Wieren, Sipke E. and Takumi, Katsuhisa and Sprong, Hein (2014) Circulation of four Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in Europe. PARASITES AND VECTORS, 7. p. 365. ISSN 1756-3305

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BACKGROUND Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. Wild animals and ticks play key roles in the enzootic cycles of the pathogen. Potential ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum have been characterized genetically, but their host range, zoonotic potential and transmission dynamics has only incompletely been resolved. METHODS The presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA was determined in more than 6000 ixodid ticks collected from the vegetation and wildlife, in 289 tissue samples from wild and domestic animals, and 69 keds collected from deer, originating from various geographic locations in The Netherlands and Belgium. From the qPCR-positive lysates, a fragment of the groEL-gene was amplified and sequenced. Additional groEL sequences from ticks and animals from Europe were obtained from GenBank, and sequences from human cases were obtained through literature searches. Statistical analyses were performed to identify A. phagocytophilum ecotypes, to assess their host range and their zoonotic potential. The population dynamics of A. phagocytophilum ecotypes was investigated using population genetic analyses. RESULTS DNA of A. phagocytophilum was present in all stages of questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus, feeding I. hexagonus, I. frontalis, I. trianguliceps, and deer keds, but was absent in questing I. arboricola and Dermacentor reticulatus. DNA of A. phagocytophilum was present in feeding ticks and tissues from many vertebrates, including roe deer, mouflon, red foxes, wild boar, sheep and hedgehogs but was rarely found in rodents and birds and was absent in badgers and lizards. Four geographically dispersed A. phagocytophilum ecotypes were identified, that had significantly different host ranges. All sequences from human cases belonged to only one of these ecotypes. Based on population genetic parameters, the potentially zoonotic ecotype showed significant expansion. CONCLUSION Four ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum with differential enzootic cycles were identified. So far, all human cases clustered in only one of these ecotypes. The zoonotic ecotype has the broadest range of wildlife hosts. The expansion of the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum ecotype indicates a recent increase of the acarological risk of exposure of humans and animals.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science / természettudomány > QH Natural history / természetrajz > QH301 Biology / biológia
Q Science / természettudomány > QH Natural history / természetrajz > QH540 Ecology / ökológia
Q Science / természettudomány > QR Microbiology / mikrobiológia
R Medicine / orvostudomány > RA Public aspects of medicine / orvostudomány társadalmi szerepe > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine / közegészségügy, higiénia, betegség-megelőzés
Depositing User: Dr Gabor Foldvari
Date Deposited: 23 Sep 2015 13:57
Last Modified: 23 Sep 2015 13:57

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