Neuroprotective effects of PACAP in the retina

Atlasz, T. and Vaczy, A. and Werling, D. and Kiss, P. and Tamas, A. and Kovacs, K. and Fabian, E. and Kvarik, T. and Mammel, B. and Danyadi, B. and Lokos, E. and Reglodi, D. (2016) Neuroprotective effects of PACAP in the retina. Springer Nature. pp. 501-527. (In Press)


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Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widespread neuropeptide that is well-known for its general cytoprotective effects in different neuronal injuries, such as traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, models of neurodegenerative diseases, and cerebral ischemia. PACAP and its receptors also occur in the retina. In this review, we summarize the retinoprotective effects of PACAP. In vitro, PACAP is protective against glutamate, thapsigargin, anisomycin, oxidative stress, UV light, high glucose, inflammation and anoxia. Both the neural retina and the pigment epithelial cells can be protected by PACAP in various experimental paradigms. In vivo, the protective effects of intravitreal PACAP treatment have been shown in the following models in rats and mice: excitotoxic injury induced by glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or kainate, ischemic injury induced by carotid artery ligation and high intraocular pressure, degeneration caused by UV-A light, optic nerve transection, and streptozotocin-induced diabetic retinopathy as well as retinopathy of prematurity. Molecular biological methods have revealed that PACAP activates anti-apoptotic, while inhibits pro-apoptotic signaling pathways, and it also stimulates an anti-inflammatory environment in the retina. Altogether, PACAP is suggested to be a potential therapeutic retinoprotective agent in various retinal diseases.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: R Medicine / orvostudomány > RE Ophthalmology / szemészet
Depositing User: Dr Tamás Atlasz
Date Deposited: 05 Oct 2016 09:09
Last Modified: 05 Oct 2016 09:09

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