Kályhacsempék és népművészet a falusi kúriákban

Holl, Imre (2010) Kályhacsempék és népművészet a falusi kúriákban. Archaeologiai Értesítő, 135 (1). pp. 85-145. ISSN 0003-8032

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A dolgozat válogatás a középkori Magyarország kályhacsempéi közül: a népi stílus korai jelentkezését vizsgálja. Ennek jellemzője a sajátos, nem naturális felfogás a korszak vagy korábbi idők motívumkincséről. Olyan ritkább csempéket is tárgyalunk, amelyek tárgyköre a mesevilág népszerű hagyományából eredt. | In this paper we discuss a group of late-medieval stove tiles called rustic tiles. These tiles do not belong to the mainstream, but often use identical motifs to those used in Middle Europe in the 15th–16th century. Their style could be characterized as more abstract, more strongly stylized, less naturalistic, a result of a different approach. Their characteristic trait is the decorative aspiration: the filling of the field around the main motif, rich border decoration, and also the overwhelmingly geometrical decoration, often similar used in wood carvings (Figs 2, 18, 36). We cover the main regions of medieval Hungary, selecting material from the funds of Transdanubia, the Great Plains, Upper Hungary and Transylvania. As an introduction, we describe how 14th–15th-century stove tile designs from the workshops of the royal court are modified by country artisans (Figs 2–5). Separate chapters deal with the medieval tale-fable themes and classical epic themes, like the recovery of the celestial bodies (Sun, Moon, stars) from the dragons (Figs 22–25 and 28–29) and sporadic designs (Figs 20–21). The richest material can be found in the counties of Transylvania and Szeklerland (the geometrical carved ornament is most prevalent here). The central workshops of the region start to produce renaissance-style in the 16th century, and production continues in the 17th century. Its effects can be traced in the works of rural potters through a long time, till the 19th century (Figs 38–41). The makers of the tiles are rural potters or those working in agricultural towns, shown by the characteristic workmanship, or sometimes by the glaze. The influence of court workshops, the variation of motifs is especially evident in Transylvanian tiles. There is little evidence on the owners of the stoves: we know about the curia of the Sárkány family, the stove of the Wathy family in Transdanubia (Figs 6–8), the Gerla Manor and the Mágocsi Manor at the Great Plains (Figs 15–16). The house at Székelykeresztúr in Transylvania was a house in an agricultural town (Figs 20, 39), the house of the Nyujtódi family was an exceptional one, built from stone. Occasionally the country houses of the aristocracy had such a stove too. Exceptionally rural stoves could be found in towns (Figs 1, 4–6) or in castles (Figs 8.1–2). We present stove-tiles from the archaic layer of the folklore, items published in the past decade, and as such, barely known for ethnologists.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Megegyezik a
Subjects: C Auxiliary Sciences of History / történeti segédtudományok > CC Archaeology / régészet
Depositing User: xKatalin xBarta
Date Deposited: 05 Jan 2017 14:27
Last Modified: 04 Feb 2017 11:04

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