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The Benefit of Directed Forgetting Persists After a Daytime Nap: The Role of Spindles and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in the Consolidation of Relevant Memories

Blaskovich, Borbála and Szőllősi, Ágnes and Gombos, Ferenc and Racsmány, Mihály and Simor, Péter (2017) The Benefit of Directed Forgetting Persists After a Daytime Nap: The Role of Spindles and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in the Consolidation of Relevant Memories. Sleep, 40 (3). zsw076. ISSN 0161-8105, ESSN: 1550-9109

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Abstract

Study Objectives: We aimed to investigate the effect of directed forgetting instruction on memory retention after a 2-hour delay involving a daytime nap or an equivalent amount of time spent awake. We examined the associations between sleep-specific oscillations and the retention of relevant and irrelevant study materials. Methods: We applied a list-method directed forgetting paradigm manipulating the perceived relevance of previously encoded lists of words. Participants were randomly assigned to either a nap or an awake group, and to a remember or a forget subgroup. The remember and the forget subgroups were both instructed to study two consecutive lists of words, although, the forget subgroup was manipulated to forget the first list and memorize only the second one. Participants were 112 healthy individuals (44 men; Mage = 21.4 years, SD = 2.4). Results: A significant directed forgetting effect emerged after a 2-hour delay both in the awake and sleep conditions; however, the effect was more pronounced within the sleep group. The benefit of directed forgetting, that is, relatively enhanced recall of relevant words in the forget group, was evidenced only in those participants that reached rapid eye movement (REM) phase. Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sigma power was correlated with memory performance for the relevant (second) list, and sleep spindle amplitude was associated with the retention of both lists. These associations, however, were detected only within the forget subgroup. REM duration correlated with recall performance for the relevant (second) list within the forget subgroup, and with recall performance for the first list within the remember subgroup. Conclusions: A directed forgetting effect persists after a 2-hour delay spent awake or asleep. Spindle-related activity and subsequent REM sleep might selectively facilitate the processing of memories that are considered to be relevant for the future.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion / filozófia, pszichológia, vallás > BF Psychology / lélektan > BF01 Psychophysiology / pszichofiziológia
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion / filozófia, pszichológia, vallás > BF Psychology / lélektan > BF13 Memory and learning / emlékezet, tanulás
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion / filozófia, pszichológia, vallás > BF Psychology / lélektan > BF18 Sleep and dreams / alvás, álom
Depositing User: Dr. Péter Simor
Date Deposited: 28 Sep 2017 22:21
Last Modified: 28 Sep 2017 22:21
URI: http://real.mtak.hu/id/eprint/64208

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