Emergence of NDM-1 among carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Iraqi hospitals

Hussein, Nadheema Hammood (2018) Emergence of NDM-1 among carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Iraqi hospitals. Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica, 65 (2). pp. 211-227. ISSN 1217-8950


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Carbapenems are the last drugs of choice apart from colistin against serious infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. However, there are increasing number of reports indicating prevailing emergence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing clinical isolates worldwide and among them New Delhi MBL (NDM) is the most prevalent one. This study reports NDM-1 for the first time among Klebsiella pneumoniae from hospitalized patients in Baghdad, Iraq. Fifty-five clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae resistant to carbapenem were investigated from burned wounds, sputum, and blood samples. The susceptibility to different antibiotics was tested by VITEK-2 system. All strains were multidrug-resistant and they showed nine different antimicrobial-resistant patterns (A-I) and the most effective antibiotic on these strains was levofloxacin (85.45%). The phenotypic detection of carbapenemases by MASTDISCS D70C revealed 29 (52.73%) strains were MBL-producing, out of 55 were carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strains. The bla<sub>NDM-1</sub> and other MBL genes were detected by conventional PCR and the result showed 37 (67.27%) strains positive for bla<sub>NDM-1</sub> gene and only 5 (9.1%) strains harbored bla<sub>IMP</sub> gene, while all strains were negative for bla<sub>VIM</sub>, bla<sub>SIM</sub>, bla<sub>GIM</sub>, and bla<sub>SPM</sub> genes. Our results showed the coexistence of both bla<sub>NDM-1</sub> and bla<sub>IMP</sub> genes in three strains of K. pneumoniae, while indicated widespread NDM-1 in Baghdad, Iraq. Hence, it is necessary to follow proper infection control practices and physicians should be aware of the patients with such risk factors.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science / természettudomány > QR Microbiology / mikrobiológia
Depositing User: Ágnes Sallai
Date Deposited: 29 Jun 2018 08:31
Last Modified: 16 Jun 2020 09:09

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