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Dissecting HIV Virulence: Heritability of Setpoint Viral Load, CD4+ T-Cell Decline, and Per-Parasite Pathogenicity

Bertels, Frederic and Marzel, Alex and Leventhal, Gabriel and Mitov, Venelin and Fellay, Jacques and Günthard, Huldrych F. and Böni, Jürg and Yerly, Sabine and Klimkait, Thomas and Aubert, Vincent and Battegay, Manuel and Rauch, Andri and Cavassini, Matthias and Calmy, Alexandra and Bernasconi, Enos and Schmid, Patrick and Scherrer, Alexandra U. and Müller, Viktor and Bonhoeffer, Sebastian and Kouyos, Roger and Regoes, Roland R (2017) Dissecting HIV Virulence: Heritability of Setpoint Viral Load, CD4+ T-Cell Decline, and Per-Parasite Pathogenicity. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 35 (1). pp. 27-37. ISSN 0737-4038

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Abstract

Pathogen strains may differ in virulence because they attain different loads in their hosts, or because they induce different disease-causing mechanisms independent of their load. In evolutionary ecology, the latter is referred to as “per-parasite pathogenicity”. Using viral load and CD4+ T-cell measures from 2014 HIV-1 subtype B-infected individuals enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we investigated if virulence—measured as the rate of decline of CD4+ T cells—and per-parasite pathogenicity are heritable from donor to recipient. We estimated heritability by donor–recipient regressions applied to 196 previously identified transmission pairs, and by phylogenetic mixed models applied to a phylogenetic tree inferred from HIV pol sequences. Regressing the CD4+ T-cell declines and per-parasite pathogenicities of the transmission pairs did not yield heritability estimates significantly different from zero. With the phylogenetic mixed model, however, our best estimate for the heritability of the CD4+ T-cell decline is 17% (5–30%), and that of the per-parasite pathogenicity is 17% (4–29%). Further, we confirm that the set-point viral load is heritable, and estimate a heritability of 29% (12–46%). Interestingly, the pattern of evolution of all these traits differs significantly from neutrality, and is most consistent with stabilizing selection for the set-point viral load, and with directional selection for the CD4+ T-cell decline and the per-parasite pathogenicity. Our analysis shows that the viral genotype affects virulence mainly by modulating the per-parasite pathogenicity, while the indirect effect via the set-point viral load is minor.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science / természettudomány > QR Microbiology / mikrobiológia > QR355 Virology / víruskutatás
Depositing User: Viktor Müller
Date Deposited: 12 Sep 2018 12:57
Last Modified: 12 Sep 2018 12:57
URI: http://real.mtak.hu/id/eprint/83659

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