Inorganic phosphate exporter heterozygosity in mice leads to brain vascular calcification, microangiopathy, and microgliosis

Maheshwari, Upasana and Mateos, José M. and Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Ulrike and Ni, Ruiqing and Tamatey, Virgil and Sridhar, Sucheta and Restrepo, Alejandro and de Jong, Pim A. and Huang, Sheng-Fu and Schaffenrath, Johanna and Stifter, Sebastian A. and Flora, Szeri and Greter, Melanie and Koek, Huiberdina L. and Keller, Annika (2023) Inorganic phosphate exporter heterozygosity in mice leads to brain vascular calcification, microangiopathy, and microgliosis. Brain Pathology. ISSN 1750-3639

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Calcification of the cerebral microvessels in the basal ganglia in the absence of systemic calcium and phosphate imbalance is a hallmark of primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), a rare neurodegenerative disorder. Mutation in genes encoding for sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2 (SLC20A2), xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1 (XPR1), platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB), myogenesis regulating glycosidase (MYORG), and junctional adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2) are known to cause PFBC. Loss-of-function mutations in XPR1, the only known inorganic phosphate exporter in meta- zoans, causing dominantly inherited PFBC was first reported in 2015 but until now no studies in the brain have addressed whether loss of one functional allele leads to pathological alterations in mice, a commonly used organism to model human diseases. Here we show that mice heterozygous for Xpr1 (Xpr1WT/lacZ) present with reduced inorganic phosphate levels in the cerebrospinal fluid and age- and sex-dependent growth of vascular calcifications in the thalamus. Vascular calcifications are surrounded by vascular basement membrane and are located at arterioles in the smooth muscle layer. Similar to previously character- ized PFBC mouse models, vascular calcifications in Xpr1WT/lacZ mice contain bone matrix proteins and are surrounded by reactive astrocytes and microglia. However, microglial activation is not confined to calcified vessels but shows a widespread presence. In addition to vascular calcifications, we observed vessel tortuosity and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed microangiopa- thy—endothelial swelling, phenotypic alterations in vascular smooth muscle cells, and thickening of the basement membrane.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science / természettudomány > QM Human anatomy / humán anatómia
Q Science / természettudomány > QP Physiology / élettan
Depositing User: Flóra Szeri
Date Deposited: 25 Sep 2023 10:40
Last Modified: 25 Sep 2023 10:40

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