Interdisciplinary analyses of Bronze Age communities from Western Hungary reveal complex population histories

Gerber, Dániel and Szeifert, Bea and Székely, Orsolya and Egyed, Balázs and Gyuris, Balázs and Giblin, Julia I. and Horváth, Anikó and Köhler, Kitti and Kulcsár, Gabriella and Kustár, Ágnes and Major, István and Molnár, Mihály and Palcsu, László and Szeverényi, Vajk and Fábián, Szilvia and Mende, Balázs Gusztáv and Bondár, Mária and Ari, Eszter and Kiss, Viktória and Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna (2023) Interdisciplinary analyses of Bronze Age communities from Western Hungary reveal complex population histories. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, 40 (9). No-msad182. ISSN 0737-4038

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In this study we report 21 ancient shotgun genomes from present-day Western Hungary, from previously understudied Late Copper Age Baden, and Bronze Age Somogyvár-Vinkovci, Kisapostag, and Encrusted Pottery archaeological cultures (3530–1620 cal BCE). Our results indicate the presence of high steppe ancestry in the Somogyvár-Vinkovci culture. They were then replaced by the Kisapostag group, who exhibit an outstandingly high (up to ∼47%) Mesolithic hunter-gatherer ancestry, despite this component being thought to be highly diluted by the time of the Early Bronze Age. The Kisapostag population contributed the genetic basis for the succeeding community of the Encrusted pottery culture. We also found an elevated hunter-gatherer component in a local Baden culture associated individual, but no connections were proven to the Bronze Age individuals. The hunter-gatherer ancestry in Kisapostag is likely derived from two main sources, one from a Funnelbeaker or Globular Amphora culture related population and one from a previously unrecognised source in Eastern Europe. We show that this ancestry not only appeared in various groups in Bronze Age Central Europe, but also made contributions to Baltic populations. The social structure of Kisapostag and Encrusted pottery cultures is patrilocal, similarly to most contemporaneous groups. Furthermore, we developed new methods and method standards for computational analyses of ancient DNA, implemented to our newly developed and freely available bioinformatic package. By analysing clinical traits, we found carriers of aneuploidy and inheritable genetic diseases. Finally, based on genetic and anthropological data, we present here the first female facial reconstruction from the Bronze Age Carpathian Basin.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: archaeogenomics, bioinformatics, ancient DNA, population genomics
Subjects: C Auxiliary Sciences of History / történeti segédtudományok > CC Archaeology / régészet
Q Science / természettudomány > QH Natural history / természetrajz > QH426 Genetics / genetika, örökléstan
Depositing User: MTMT SWORD
Date Deposited: 25 Sep 2023 11:02
Last Modified: 25 Sep 2023 11:02

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