Mid-Miocene silicic explosive volcanism of the Tokaj Mts., eastern-central Europe: Eruption chronology, geochemical fingerprints and petrogenesis

Lukács, Réka and Guillong, Marcel and Szepesi, János and Szymanowski, D. and Portnyagin, M. and Józsa, Sándor and Bachmann, Olivier and Petrelli, M. and Müller, S. and Schiller, David and Fodor, László and Chelle-Michou, C. and Harangi, Szabolcs (2024) Mid-Miocene silicic explosive volcanism of the Tokaj Mts., eastern-central Europe: Eruption chronology, geochemical fingerprints and petrogenesis. GONDWANA RESEARCH. ISSN 1342-937X

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The Tokaj Mts. volcanism occurred in a thinning continental lithosphere regime at the final stage of the subduction process. Using high-precision zircon U-Pb dating, four major explosive eruption events were distinguished. Among them the 13.1 Ma Sátoraljaújhely and the 12.0 Ma Szerencs eruptions could have yielded large amount of volcanic material (possibly > 100 km 3 ) and they were associated with caldera collapse as shown by the several hundred-metre-thick pyroclastic deposits and the long (>100 km) run- out pyroclastic flow in case of the 13.1 Ma eruption. The 12.3 Ma Hegyköz and the 11.6 Ma Vizsoly erup- tions were relatively smaller. The volcanic products can be readily distinguished by zircon and glass trace elements and trace element ratios, which can be used for fingerprinting and to correlate with distal deposits. The Rb, Ba, Sr content and strong negative Eu-anomaly of the glasses reflect extreme crystal fractionation, particularly for the Szerencs rhyolitic magma. The silicic volcanic products of the Tokaj Mts. show compositional similarities with the so-called ‘dry–reduced–hot’ rhyolite type consistent with an origin in an extensional environment, where the primary magmas were formed by near-adiabatic decompression melting in the mantle with subordinate fluid flux. In contrast, some of the older Bükkalja rhyolitic magmas evolved via more hydrous evolutionary paths, where amphibole played a role in the control of the trace element budget. The significant increase of zircon e Hf values from 8.8 to + 0.2 in the rhyolitic pyroclastic rocks of Tokaj Mts. with time implies that mantle-derived magmas became more dominant. This can be explained by the specific tectonic setting, i.e. the final stage of subduction when the descending subducted slab became almost vertical, which exerted a pull in the upper litho- sphere leading to thinning and accelerated subsidence as well as asthenospheric mantle flow just before the slab detachment.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Pyroclastic rock, Ignimbrite, Zircon petrochronology, Crystal-poor rhyolite, Caldera-forming eruption, Syn-extensional volcanism
Subjects: Q Science / természettudomány > QE Geology / földtudományok > QE02 Geochemistry / geokémia
Depositing User: DSc Szabolcs Harangi
Date Deposited: 23 Feb 2024 07:45
Last Modified: 23 Feb 2024 07:45

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