Oxidative modification enhances the immunostimulatory effects of extracellular mitochondrial DNA on plasmacytoid dendritic cells

Pazmandi, Kitti and Agod, Zsofia and Kumar, Brahma V. and Szabo, Attila and Fekete, Tunde and Sogor, Viktoria and Veres, Agota and Boldogh, Istvan and Rajnavolgyi, Eva and Lanyi, Arpad and Bacsi, Attila (2014) Oxidative modification enhances the immunostimulatory effects of extracellular mitochondrial DNA on plasmacytoid dendritic cells. FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, 77. pp. 281-90. ISSN 0891-5849


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Inflammation is associated with oxidative stress and characterized by elevated levels of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules released from injured or even living cells into the surrounding microenvironment. One of these endogenous danger signals is the extracellular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) containing evolutionary conserved unmethylated CpG repeats. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by recruited inflammatory cells modify mtDNA oxidatively resulting primarily in accumulation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) lesions. In this study, we examined the impact of native and oxidatively modified mtDNAs on the phenotypic and functional properties of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which possess a fundamental role in the regulation of inflammation and T cell immunity. Treatment of human primary pDCs with native mtDNA up-regulated the expression of a co-stimulatory molecule (CD86), a specific maturation marker (CD83), and a main antigen-presenting molecule (HLA-DQ) on the cell surface, as well as increased TNF-α and IL-8 production from the cells. These effects were more apparent when pDCs were exposed to oxidatively modified mtDNA. Neither native nor oxidized mtDNA molecules were able to induce interferon (IFN)-α secretion from pDCs unless they formed a complex with human cathelicidin LL-37, an antimicrobial peptide. Interestingly, simultaneous administration of a Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 antagonist abrogated the effects of both native and oxidized mtDNAs on human pDCs. In a murine model, oxidized mtDNA also proved a more potent activator of pDCs compared to the native form, except for induction of IFN-α production. Collectively, we demonstrate here for the first time that elevated levels of 8-oxoG bases in the extracellular mtDNA induced by oxidative stress increase the immunostimulatory capacity of mtDNA on pDCs.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science / természettudomány > QR Microbiology / mikrobiológia > QR180 Immunology / immunológia
Depositing User: Dr Attila Bácsi
Date Deposited: 31 Oct 2014 08:43
Last Modified: 24 May 2016 10:38

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