Occurrence and Functions of PACAP in the Placenta

Horváth, G and Németh, J and Brubel, R and Opper, B and Koppán, M and Tamás, A and Szereday, L and Reglődi, D (2016) Occurrence and Functions of PACAP in the Placenta. In: Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide — PACAP. Current Topics in Neurotoxicity . Springer International Publishing, pp. 389-403. ISBN 978-3-319-35135-3 (In Press)


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Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous neuropeptide with a widespread distribution both in the nervous system and peripheral organs. The peptide is also present in the female gonadal system, indicating its role in reproductive functions. While a lot of data are known on PACAP-induced effects in oogenesis and in the regulation of gonadotropin secretion at pituitary level, its placental effects are somewhat neglected in spite of the documented implantation deficit in mice lacking endogenous PACAP. The aim of the present review is to give a brief summary on the occurrence and actions of PACAP and its receptors in the placenta. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) measurements revealed increased serum PACAP levels during the third trimester and several changes in placental PACAP content in obstetrical pathological conditions, further supporting the function of PACAP during pregnancy. Both the peptide and its receptors have been shown in different parts of the placenta and the umbilical cord. PACAP influences blood vessel and smooth muscle contractility of the uteroplacental unit and is involved in regulation of local hormone secretion. The effects of PACAP on trophoblast cells have been mainly studied in vitro. Effects of PACAP on cell survival, angiogenesis and invasion/proliferation have been described in different trophoblast cell lines. PACAP increases proliferation and decreases invasion in proliferative extravillous trophoblast cells, but not in primary trophoblast cells, where PACAP decreased the secretion of various angiogenic markers. PACAP pretreatment enhances survival of non-tumorous primary trophoblast cells exposed to oxidative stress, but it does not influence the cell death-inducing effects of methotrexate in proliferative extravillous cytotrophoblast cells. Interestingly, PACAP has pro-apoptotic effect in choriocarcinoma cells suggesting that the effect of PACAP depends on the type of trophoblast cells. These data strongly support that PACAP plays a role in normal and pathological pregnancies and our review provides an overview of currently available experimental data worth to be further investigated to elucidate the exact role of this peptide in the placenta.

Item Type: Book Section
Subjects: R Medicine / orvostudomány > R1 Medicine (General) / orvostudomány általában > R850-854 Experimental medicine / kisérleti orvostudomány
Depositing User: Dr. Gabriella Horváth-Opper
Date Deposited: 26 Sep 2016 12:54
Last Modified: 26 Sep 2016 12:54

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