VB-MK-LMF: Fusion of drugs, targets and interactions using Variational Bayesian Multiple Kernel Logistic Matrix Factorization

Bolgár, Bence and Antal, Péter (2017) VB-MK-LMF: Fusion of drugs, targets and interactions using Variational Bayesian Multiple Kernel Logistic Matrix Factorization. BMC BIOINFORMATICS. ISSN 1471-2105 (In Press)


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Background Computational fusion approaches to drug-target interaction (DTI) prediction, capable of utilizing multiple sources of background knowledge, were reported to achieve superior predictive performance in multiple studies. Other studies showed that specificities of the DTI task, such as weighting the observations and focusing the side information are also vital for reaching top performance. Method We present Variational Bayesian Multiple Kernel Logistic Matrix Factorization (VB-MK-LMF), which unifies the advantages of (1) multiple kernel learning, (2) weighted observations, (3) graph Laplacian regularization, and (4) explicit modeling of probabilities of binary drug-target interactions. Results VB-MK-LMF achieves significantly better predictive performance in standard benchmarks compared to state-of-the-art methods, which can be traced back to multiple factors. The systematic evaluation of the effect of multiple kernels confirm their benefits, but also highlights the limitations of linear kernel combinations, already recognized in other fields. The analysis of the effect of prior kernels using varying sample sizes sheds light on the balance of data and knowledge in DTI tasks and on the rate at which the effect of priors vanishes. This also shows the existence of ``small sample size'' regions where using side information offers significant gains. Alongside favorable predictive performance, a notable property of MF methods is that they provide a unified space for drugs and targets using latent representations. Compared to earlier studies, the dimensionality of this space proved to be surprisingly low, which makes the latent representations constructed by VB-ML-LMF especially well-suited for visual analytics. The probabilistic nature of the predictions allows the calculation of the expected values of hits in functionally relevant sets, which we demonstrate by predicting drug promiscuity. The variational Bayesian approximation is also implemented for general purpose graphics processing units yielding significantly improved computational time. Conclusion In standard benchmarks, VB-MK-LMF shows significantly improved predictive performance in a wide range of settings. Beyond these benchmarks, another contribution of our work is highlighting and providing estimates for further pharmaceutically relevant quantities, such as promiscuity, druggability and total number of interactions. Availability Data and code are available at

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science / természettudomány > QA Mathematics / matematika > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science / számítástechnika, számítógéptudomány
Depositing User: Peter Antal
Date Deposited: 01 Oct 2017 18:13
Last Modified: 01 Oct 2017 18:13

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