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Both Positive and Negative Selection Pressures Contribute to the Polymorphism Pattern of the Duplicated Human CYP21A2 Gene.

Szabo, J. A. and Szilágyi, Ágnes and Doleschall, Z. and Patócs, Attila Balázs and Farkas, Henriette and Prohászka, Zoltán and Rácz, Károly and Füst, György and Doleschall, Márton (2013) Both Positive and Negative Selection Pressures Contribute to the Polymorphism Pattern of the Duplicated Human CYP21A2 Gene. PLOS ONE, 8 (11). No.-e81977. ISSN 1932-6203

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Abstract

The human steroid 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2) participates in cortisol and aldosterone biosynthesis, and resides together with its paralogous (duplicated) pseudogene in a multiallelic copy number variation (CNV), called RCCX CNV. Concerted evolution caused by non-allelic gene conversion has been described in great ape CYP21 genes, and the same conversion activity is responsible for a serious genetic disorder of CYP21A2, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). In the current study, 33 CYP21A2 haplotype variants encoding 6 protein variants were determined from a European population. CYP21A2 was shown to be one of the most diverse human genes (HHe=0.949), but the diversity of intron 2 was greater still. Contrary to previous findings, the evolution of intron 2 did not follow concerted evolution, although the remaining part of the gene did. Fixed sites (different fixed alleles of sites in human CYP21 paralogues) significantly accumulated in intron 2, indicating that the excess of fixed sites was connected to the lack of effective non-allelic conversion and concerted evolution. Furthermore, positive selection was presumably focused on intron 2, and possibly associated with the previous genetic features. However, the positive selection detected by several neutrality tests was discerned along the whole gene. In addition, the clear signature of negative selection was observed in the coding sequence. The maintenance of the CYP21 enzyme function is critical, and could lead to negative selection, whereas the presumed gene regulation altering steroid hormone levels via intron 2 might help fast adaptation, which broadly characterizes the genes of human CNVs responding to the environment.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science / természettudomány > Q1 Science (General) / természettudomány általában
T Technology / alkalmazott, műszaki tudományok > T2 Technology (General) / műszaki tudományok általában
SWORD Depositor: MTMT SWORD
Depositing User: MTMT SWORD
Date Deposited: 06 Feb 2014 03:31
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2014 03:31
URI: http://real.mtak.hu/id/eprint/9896

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