Johannes KENTMANN magyarországi ásványai 1565-ben = Johannes KENTMANN's minerals from Hungary in 1565

Kázmér, Miklós (2002) Johannes KENTMANN magyarországi ásványai 1565-ben = Johannes KENTMANN's minerals from Hungary in 1565. Földtani Közlöny, 132 (3-4). pp. 457-470.


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Archival and printed documents (letters, diaries, books, maps, etc.) are the usual sources of research in the history of science. Non-written sources (collections, models, instruments) and their catalogues might have significant role in revealing contemporary scientific thinking. Johannes KENTMANN (1518–1574) was the first to publish a catalogue of a mineral collection: Nomenclatura rerum fossilium (Zürich, 1565). His minerals from the Carpathian region, collected during his trip to Hungary in 1550, are discussed here. Although the minerals did not persist, the catalogue faithfully recorded their characters, localities, and their classification. KENTMANN was a medical doctor, who studied in Padova, and was a friend of Conrad GESNER. KENTMANN developed wide interests in botany and zoology while in Italy, and assembled a mineral collection during his later career. Requested to join the embassy of Josef STRAMBURGER to Hungary, sent by the elector Maurice of Saxony, in 1550 he paid a visit to the Hungarian mining centres and collected minerals there. There were 1608 mineral specimens derived from 135 localities, about three-fourths of them from Saxony. Thirty specimens came from the Carpathian region. What can we understand from this seemingly minor, but theoretically significant collection? We suggest that KENTMANN went himself to the field and collected – at least some of – the minerals by his own hands, as indicated by Nos. 17–19 (see Table 1), found at the same locality. He had a plan to assemble certain minerals in his collection. This plan is based mostly on those Carpathian minerals which have been discussed in AGRICOLA's De natura fossilium (1546): salt, bitumen, vitriol, copper, Bleiglanz, chrysocolla, and quicksilver. KENTMANN supplemented them by gold, bolus, enosteos (possibly fossil bones), antimon, and Bergblau. All these minerals had useful purposes, either for metallurgy, or for medicine. He collected no minerals just for their beauty or decorative character, therefore pyrites and quartz are missing from the collection. | Johannes KENTMANN (1518–1574) szászországi orvos 1550-ben részt vett a Josef STRAMBURGER vezette magyarországi követjáráson. Az útja során általa gyûjtött, ill. más úton megszerzett ásványok leírása megtalálható a „Nomenclatura rerum fossilium” címû, 1565-ben Zürichben megjelent munkájában, mely a világ elsõ, nyomtatásban megjelent ásványkatalógusa. A 11 magyarországi, ill. összesen 30 kárpáti ásvány ismertetése a régió addigi legteljesebb ásványkatalógusa. KENTMANN gyûjtése a (kohászati vagy orvosi célra) hasznosítható ásványi nyersanyagokra szorítkozott.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science / természettudomány > Q1 Science (General) / természettudomány általában
Depositing User: M. Kázmér
Date Deposited: 17 Jun 2012 09:01
Last Modified: 17 Jun 2012 09:01

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